Water saving irrigation is to obtain the maximum yield or benefit from the minimum water consumption, which is to increase the yield and output value of the crops.
The main type of irrigation are: channel anti-seepage, low-pressure pipe irrigation, sprinkling irrigation, micro irrigation and irrigation management system.
In conclusion, there are five main types of irrigation system.
- Channel anti-seepage.
The water utilization coefficient of traditional canal is 0.4~0.5, the difference is only about 0.3, that is to say, most of the water is leaking and evaporation loss.
Channel seepage is the main aspect of irrigation water loss.
After adopting channel impervious technology, the water utilization coefficient can be increased to 0.6~0.85, which is 50% to 70% higher than the original channel.
The channel impermeability also has the advantages such as fast water transmission, good for agricultural production, and saving land.
- Pipeline transmission.
The pipe is used to direct the water to the field for irrigation, so as to reduce the leakage and evaporation loss of the water in the open channel.
Irrigation in developed countries has been heavily channelled.
Commonly used tubes are concrete pipes, plastic hard (soft) tubes and metal pipes.
Compared with water transmission, pipeline transmission has the advantages of rapid water transmission, saving water, saving land and increasing production. The benefit is: the utilization coefficient of water can be increased to 0.95.
Save 20% ~ 30%;2 to 3 percent of the province;Increase yield by 10%.
However, the pipeline transmission only reduces the loss of water in the process of water transmission, and the water saving measures such as sprinkling irrigation and drip irrigation should be used in order to achieve effective water use.
At present, it is not suitable for the place of sprinkler irrigation and drip irrigation equipment, and the pressure capacity of pipeline layout and pipe material should be considered in the future, so as to avoid waste.
3. drip irrigation
In the type of irrigation.Drip irrigation is the use of plastic pipe to transfer water through the orifice or drop head of the 10mm capillary tube to the root of the crop for local irrigation.
It is one of the most effective water-saving irrigation methods in arid areas, and its water utilization rate can reach 95%.
Drip irrigation has a higher water-saving effect than sprinkler irrigation, and it can be combined with fertilization to more than double.
It can be applied to fruit trees, vegetables, economic crops and greenhouse greenhouse irrigation.
The disadvantage is that the droplets are prone to scaling and blockage, so the water supply should be strictly filtered.
Sprinkler irrigation is to use the pipe to send water to the irrigation area, and disperse into small droplets through the sprinkler head, spray evenly into the field, and irrigate the crops.
As an advanced mechanized and semi-mechanized irrigation method, it has been widely adopted in many developed countries.
The main advantages of sprinkler irrigation are as follows:
(1) the water-saving effect is better, and the utilization rate of water can reach 80%.
In general, compared with ground irrigation, 1m3 water can be used as 2m3 water.
(2) the increase of crop yield is large, generally reaching 20% ~ 40%.
The reason is to cancel the agricultural canal, the channel, the field irrigation ditch and the border ridge, increased the planting area of 15% ~ 20%;
The irrigation is uniform, the soil is not tied, which is good for the season and the preservation of seedlings;
The field microclimate and agricultural ecological environment were improved.
(3) it greatly reduced the workload of field canal system construction and management and maintenance and leveling of land.
(4) reduce the cost of irrigation for farmers and increase the income of farmers.
(5) accelerate the realization of agricultural mechanization, industrialization and modernization.
(6) avoid soil secondary salinization caused by excessive irrigation.
In the type of irrigation system. Microjet is a new type of micro-sprinkler irrigation.
This is the use of plastic pipe to water, through the micro-sprinkler spraying for local irrigation.
It saves water more than general sprinkling irrigation, can increase yield more than 30%, can improve the field small climate, can combine application fertilizer, improve the fertilizer effect.
Mainly used in economic crops, flowers, fruit trees, lawns, greenhouse greenhouse and other irrigation.
Scientific type of irrigation system.irrigation includes modern irrigation methods such as drip irrigation, micro-spraying, seepage irrigation and sprinkling irrigation.
It is necessary to make reasonable design according to the water demand characteristics, fertility stage, climate and soil conditions of the corresponding plants, and formulate corresponding irrigation system, timely, appropriate and reasonable irrigation.
On the basis of absorbing the achievements of modern science and technology, irrigation technology will be developed in the direction of saving energy and saving energy, optimizing dispatching, modern management and monitoring and forecasting.
It is also necessary to develop scientific irrigation methods in the construction of modern facilities agriculture, horticulture and landscape.